Discuss Japan's Interest in China and the West in the Period o

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    The Tokugawa shogunate period is the time of tranquility and prosperity in Japan that has been celebrated as the time of the fullest expression of Japanese culture before the arrival of westerners. This period lasted from 1603 to 1867 when Japan experienced the greatest level of social mobility and economic development (Stearns, 2008). The then leaders were occupied with the development that could enable the nation to withstand the hostile environment. This insecurity created the need for the nation to be capable of competing with the stronger western nations. Therefore, it is crucial to discuss the interests of Japan in both China and the West.

    The Tokugawa shogunate period is marked as the period when the nation gained the centralized leadership borrowed from Chinese culture. Prior to this period, the Tokugawa Shogunate was ruled by a ceremonial emperor who was both irrelevant and powerless since the military dominated the decision making process. With the demise of the emperor Hideyoshi and with no heir to ascend the throne, Tokugawa ceased power and used their predecessors model to control a quarter of the country while the rest retained its autonomy provided that they pledged loyalty to the Tokugawa house (History of Japan, Tokugawa Period, 1600-1867, n.d.). This marked a period when the country gained economic and diplomatic development through its interaction with the rest of the world.

    Japans interests in China were both economic and diplomatic. China was the only country that had been approved to trade with Japan in Nagasaki while all the other countries such as Spain and Portugal were banned (History of Japan, Tokugawa Period, 1600-1867, n.d.). It also served as a great point of information as it helped Japan to understand what was happening in the outside world. For instance, thanks to China, Japan found out about the anxiety created by the western imperialism during the first opium war. China also acted as a military measure in which Japan sought to test the military capability of the western nations. In such a way, it was confirmed that the western military was much stronger, and this was the reason why Chinese defiance of cooperation with it was easily crushed.

    The West was important to Japan because it offered an economic development to the region. It was through interaction with the West that the Japanese gained knowledge, and it was evident that most parts of Japan had presence of the students from the West (History of Japan, Tokugawa Period, 1600-1867, n.d.). The country was concerned with gaining enough knowledge of the Western language in order to benefit from the vast industrial expertise, political leadership, and capitalism.

    In conclusion, Japans interest in both China and the West is evident. China offered both economic and diplomatic capabilities for Japan as both countries participated in trade in Nagasaki and China acted as a bench mark upon which Japan interacted with the West. Japans interest in West was created by the need to understand their political, industrial expertise, and capitalism. The knowledge gained from them helped Japan in its development, thus making it possible to compete with the rest of the world.

    Essay 2: Discuss Political, Social, and Economic Environment of Europe in the Mid-To-End 19th Century

    The last half of the 19th century was marked by the Industrial Revolution in Europe that brought different political, economic, and social environments (Slawson, 2017). It led to the social strife in which inequality was increased. In regard to the political spectrum, the powerful nation states as well as increased racism emerged. The economic development was the main aspect of this period, and different states experienced different levels of economic growth depending on the availability of labor and raw materials. Therefore, it is important to discuss the economic, social, and political environments in Europe during the last half of the 19th century.

    To begin with, there was an increased social interaction and human population in the continent due to the increased food production. Both the French and the Industrial Revolution led to the high food production that enabled to feed a large number of people. In this way, several cities developed, and human interaction enhanced. In addition, the new cultures were introduced as Africans were traded as slaves to work in the farms to enhance productivity (Slawson, 2017). However, different countries experienced different levels of social interaction depending on the level of capital and agricultural production.

    Political environment was crucial at this time with most countries in the continent revolutionizing their politics to accommodate the industrial production. For instance, Britain sought to increase its labor force and investment capital by passing laws that allowed the utilization of the slaves in the industries and farms (Slawson, 2017). Those countries that failed to alter their political tactics, especially in the matters pertaining to landholding, lagged behind in development. For example, Austria faced shortage of raw material and suffered from a relatively small market.

    Economic development was the major impact of this period as this was a time when the production of goods increased tremendously. There was a high demand for the manufactured goods, and the slaves enhanced the availability of raw materials. The infrastructures such as railways were laid to promote transportation of the produced products (Slawson, 2017). The trading centers grew into towns and later into cities that held huge populations, thus providing consumer market.

    In conclusion, the 19th century was the period when Europe experienced a complete change that altered almost all aspects of life. Political alterations, especially change of the landholding policies, were made to pave the way for the Industrial Revolution. Socialization increased as people were concentrated in towns and cities while the utilization of slaves led to the introduction of new cultures. There was also an increased economic productivity that was driven by the availability of raw material and ready market that encouraged infrastructural development in the region.

    Essay 3: Identify the Causes and Impact of the Russian Revolution

    The revolution in Russia was experienced in the year of 1905 during the reign of Tsar Nicholas the Second. The country experienced massive conflicts that lowered its credibility. The revolution was a way for the oppressed to air their grievances at that time. The Bolshevik revolution can be attributed to a number of factors. Its aftermath witnessed numerous effects in social, political, and economic spectrum (Smith, 2011). Therefore, it is crucial to identify the causes of the revolution as well as the consequences resulting from it.

    There are various causes of the Russian Revolution that was aimed at sweeping away the old system. Poverty among the peasants was one of the main reasons why the conflict began. The landowners and government required a huge share of their income. They increased in population, land become scarce and debt increased, thus leading to a protest. In the urban areas, the working conditions were poor as urban workforce worked in hazardous environments with low wages (Smith, 2011). Also, the effects of the World War such as widespread hunger left many disgruntled and thus protested against the government.

    The Russian Revolution led to a number of consequences that changed the social, political, and economic aspects of the country. The autocratic rule was brought to an end, and the communism was embraced. Later, this led to the Cold War with the West (Smith, 2011). Russia opted out from the First World War and had to sign a treaty that resulted in conceding its huge land to Germany. There was a decline in industrial production as the majority of the workers fled the country.

    Moreover, the population decreased, especially due to the civil war that involved Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik and led to the death of approximately 15 million people (Smith, 2011). The economy was also left in shambles with the banks being nationalized. The factories were given to the workers and the farmland distributed among the farmers. The revolution marked the end of Czarists rule leading to the execution of his entire family (Smith, 2011).

    In conclusion, the Russian Revolution was caused by a number of reasons, among which poor working conditions, dissatisfaction among the farmers as well as the continued autocracy were the most crucial. It is the dissatisfaction among the various groups that led to the revolution. The effects of the revolution were widespread, and they were social, economic as well as political. There was massive loss of lives, the end of autocracy, and transfer of ownership of the factories, land, and banks. The banks were nationalized, factories given to workers while land given to farmers.

    Essay 4: Evaluate the Causes of World War II

    The world has experienced two major wars. The World War II that occurred in 1939 was unlike the previous one because it involved many nations. Various factors contributed to the conflict that resulted in the war as different countries had their own interests that had to be fulfilled. Thus it is important to evaluate the causes of the World War II in order to understand the domestic interests that made different camps form alliances (Callery, 2013). Some of the causes to be evaluated include the German aggression, violation of the Versailles treaty, and Poland invasion by Germany.

    The main trigger of the World War II was the German aggression in which both Britain and France took the appeasement role. Hitler was determined to expand the German territory with the aim of unifying all the ethnic groups in the country (Callery, 2013). Germany continued to annex countries such as Czechoslovakia and Austria. Moreover, believing that both France and England would not engage in war, it also sought to take Poland. This angered Britain and France who had vowed to protect Poland and thus declared war on Germany.

    The Versailles treaty was signed after the World War I and stated that Germany had to give some of its lands to the victorious countries. This decision was considered to be harsh and was resented by the German nationals. This was utilized by Hitler to incite Germans on the need to go to war. Austria was a part of the Germanic country and joined Germany in the nationalism (Callery, 2013). Thus Germany got another nation that supported it and felt that it was ready to go to war.

    The other cause of the World War II was the challenge that Germany posed to both France and Britain. Even though the latter countries had been involved in war in the past, they found a need to unite against a common enemy. France had also suffered a defeat in the hands of Germany in the 19th century, and this was an opportunity for France to seek revenge (Callery, 2013). Therefore, it was the rivalry among the European nations that ignited the World War II.

    In conclusion, the World War II broke out because the European nations sought revenge. Germany was the main aggressor while France and Britain had not interfered until Germany attacked Poland. The unity of Britain and France was also a factor that contributed to the war since they felt the need to fight a common enemy together. Nationalism in Germany had made its nationals resent the harsh treatment during the Versailles treaty, and Hitler used this to advance his hostility. France also wanted to seek revenge after the Germans attack in the past.